Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Polylang

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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang - NP: Phonotact

Post by DesEsseintes » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 16:39

What follows is the latest version of the phonology. I'm pretty sure I won't be deviating that much from it. Soon to follow are posts on Phonotactics and Allophony.

Hííenununóóoþa Phonology 3.0

Although I wouldn't say the phonology has changed drastically, I just wanted to make a proper post on how things stand at the moment.

Phoneme Inventory

Consonants

The main change to the consonant inventory is that I've gotten rid of not only the voiced fricatives but the approximants as well. There are no /j w/ phonemes anymore, let alone /ɰ/. I got rid of the glottal stop as well. Furthermore, I've gone back to having a single nasal /n/.

That leaves us with this:

/n/ n
/b t t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ k/ b t ts tł ch k
/ɸ θ s ɬ ʃ x h/ f þ s ł sh x h

Arranging the consonant segments according to MoA gives us the following table:

Code: Select all

    nasal        n
     stop    b   t           k
  spirant    ɸ   θ           x   h
affricate        t͡s  t͡ɬ  t͡ʃ
 strident        s   ɬ   ʃ
The allophonic relations between consonant segments listed earlier in this thread may still apply at a deeper level, but the way I'm thinking things at the moment, they probably represent a stage quite a bit earlier in the evolution of the language. (I'm also thinking of developing a sisterlang later on where these features will be more prominent.)

Vowels

The vowel system has been reduced somewhat. Back unrounded vowels are out, and so is /ɑ/.

Short monophthongs

/i y u/ ı ų u
/ɛ œ ɔ/ e ǫ o

Long monophthongs

/iː yː uː/ ıı ųų uu
/ɛː œː ɔː/ ee ǫǫ oo

Short diphthongs

/eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯/ eı ǫų ou

Long diphthongs

/ɛɪ̯ː œʏ̯ː ɔʊ̯ː/ eeı ǫǫų oou

As will be explained in the section on phonotactics soon to follow, long vowel sequences are now possible without intervening consonants or glides. Therefore, there is no longer any need to posit phonemic triphthongs.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang - NP: Phonotact

Post by DesEsseintes » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 16:54

Phonotactics

Syllabic structure is roughly (C1(x/s))V(C2(ː))

C1 is any consonant
V can be any of the long or short monophthongs and diphthongs listed in the vowels section above.
C2 is any of /n b t k s ɬ h/. /s ɬ h/ can also occur geminate in this position except word-finally.

In coda position, /t k/ affricatise to [t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ] ts ch before another stop or affricate. They also become aspirated as will be further detailed in the section on allophony.

In coda position, /s sː/ are realised [ʃ ʃː] sh ssh before /t͡ɬ t͡ʃ/.

In coda position after a high vowel, /h hː/ assimilate (partly) to the PoA of a following stop or affricate as follows
/h hː/ → [ɸ ɸː] f ff before /b/
/h hː/ → [θ θː] þ þþ before /t t͡s/
/h hː/ → [x xː] x xx before /t͡ɬ t͡ʃ k/

Word-finally, only the following codas are permissible: n b t k s ł h.

Consonant Clusters

Hííenununóóoþa phonotactics allows some pretty spectacular consonant clusters, but most are only found word-medially.

Word-initial clusters are restricted to the following:
• a stop followed by /s x/: bs bx tss tx ks kx
• /n ɸ θ s/ followed by /x/: nx fx þx sx

Here is a table of possible word-medial clusters.

Code: Select all

      n     b     t     ts    tł    ch    k   
n     -     nb    nt    nts   ntł   nch   nk  
b     -     -     bt    bts   btł   bch   bk  
t     -     tsb   tst   tsts  tstł  tsch  tsk 
k     -     chb   cht   chts  chtł  -     chk 
s     sn    sb    st    sts   shtł  shch  sk  
ss    ssn   ssb   sst   ssts  sshtł sshch ssk 
ł     łn    łb    łt    łts   łtł   łch   łk  
łł    łłn   łłb   łłt   łłts  łłtł  łłch  łłk 
h     hn    hb    ht    hts   htł   hch   hk  
Hh    hn    fb    þt    þts   xtł   xch   xk  
hh    hhn   hhb   hht   hhts  hhtł  hhch  hhk 
Hhh   hhn   ffb   þþt   þþts  xxtł  xxch  xxk 

Code: Select all

      f     þ     s     ł     sh    x     h
n     nf    nþ    ns    -     nsh   nx    nh
b     -     -     bs    -     -     bx    -
t     -     -     tss   -     -     tx    -
k     -     -     ks    -     -     kx    -
s     sf    sþ    ss    -     ssh   sx    (sh)
ss    ssf   ssþ   -     -     -     ssx   (ssh)
ł     łf    łþ    łs    -     łsh   łx    (łh)
łł    łłf   łłþ   łłs   -     łłsh  łłx   (łłh)
h     hf    hþ    hs    hł    hsh   hx    hh
Hh    hf    hþ    hs    hł    hsh   hx    hh
hh    -     -     -     -     -     -     -   
Hhh   -     -     -     -     -     -     -
Hh = /h/ preceded by a high vowel
Hhh = /hː/ preceded by a high vowel

In addition to the clusters in the table above, /x s/ can be added to form more complex clusters such as stsx, łłks, etc. I'm as of yet unsure what restrictions will be placed on the occurrence of such clusters.

Note that a distinction is made between /t͡s/ ts and /ts/ tss like in Blackfoot.

For now, there are no permissible word-final clusters or geminate consonants.

Vowel Sequences

Longer sequences are possible now that glides have been eliminated from the language. These are considered separate syllables.

As an example, cheííee is a valid word. It contains three syllables [t͡ʃɛ˩.iː˥.ɛː˩].
Last edited by DesEsseintes on Mon 15 Dec 2014, 17:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 17:18

Some Allophony

This is far from complete, but so far I've got two ideas for allophony that I'm pretty sure to keep.

Aspiration of Stops and Affricates

The stops and affricates b t ts tł ch k are generally not aspirated. However, they are aspirated in two different environments:

a) before Vh in a closed syllable, e.g. kéh [kʰɛ̥h]. Note that the following short vowel is generally devoiced as well, and always so word-finally.

b) before another stop or affricate, e.g. íchbíí [jɪt͡ʃʰbiː]

When aspirated b is optionally devoiced, but for some speakers it remains voiced with breathy voice on the following vowel. b is regularly devoiced when simultaneously preceded by /h/ and followed by /x s/, e.g. eıffbsít [eɪɸːb̥sit].

The Nasal

/n/ is mostly realised as [n], but it is realised as [ŋ] before /b k f x/.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by Incorruptus » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 17:50

Can someone explain what a geminated coda of any sort should sound like?

I like this, BTW. The clusters are awesome. I loved making Maskųti's clusters.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by kanejam » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 19:43

No [m]? No approximants? Coda /h:/?? You're a madman!! Very cool [:D]

Why no love for the low vowels? I feel like some kind of vowel allophony would fill that gap in.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by shimobaatar » Mon 15 Dec 2014, 22:55

DesEsseintes wrote:/n/ n
/b t t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ k/ b t ts tł ch k
/ɸ θ s ɬ ʃ x h/ f þ s ł sh x h

/i y u/ ı ų u
/ɛ œ ɔ/ e ǫ o
/iː yː uː/ ıı ųų uu
/ɛː œː ɔː/ ee ǫǫ oo

/eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯/ eı ǫų ou
/ɛɪ̯ː œʏ̯ː ɔʊ̯ː/ eeı ǫǫų oou
Cool, I especially like how the beginnings of the long diphthongs are somewhat "reduced" compared to their short counterparts.
DesEsseintes wrote:Hh = /h/ preceded by a high vowel
Hhh = /hː/ preceded by a high vowel
I like the clusters, especially how /h/ clusters are different after high vowels.
DesEsseintes wrote:Note that a distinction is made between /t͡s/ ts and /ts/ tss like in Blackfoot.
Nice! So I take it there's no possibility of an affricate with a geminate release?
DesEsseintes wrote:As an example, cheííee is a valid word. It contains three syllables [t͡ʃɛ˩.iː˥.ɛː˩].
For some reason, that word looks vaguely French to me, especially if an <r> were thrown in there.

Any change in the way tones work?
DesEsseintes wrote:The stops and affricates b t ts tł ch k are generally not aspirated. However, they are aspirated in two different environments:

a) before Vh in a closed syllable, e.g. kéh [kʰɛ̥h]. Note that the following short vowel is generally devoiced as well, and always so word-finally.

b) before another stop or affricate, e.g. íchbíí [jɪt͡ʃʰbiː]
Very interesting! Also, looking at the b) rule, are glides always allophonically inserted before word-initial high vowels? Sorry if you talked about this and I accidentally overlooked it.
DesEsseintes wrote:cheííee
kéh
íchbíí
eıffbsít
I really like the aesthetic of Hííenununóóoþa. It has a very distinctive look to it, and that look can't be easily compared to that of a natlang or group of natlangs, at least in my opinion.
Incorruptus wrote:Can someone explain what a geminated coda of any sort should sound like?
Well… this is probably going to be an unsatisfying answer, but geminated codas sound just like regular codas… but longer.

In my own experience, this is how I (try to) pronounce geminate consonants:
  • Stops: Pronounce it twice, with an extremely small pause between the two.
  • Almost any other consonant: Pronounce it, but hold/keep pronouncing it for a little bit longer than you usually would, much like a long vowel.
Just my take on it, I suppose.
kanejam wrote:Why no love for the low vowels? I feel like some kind of vowel allophony would fill that gap in.
[+1] I also hope that low vowels pop up once allophony is discussed in greater detail
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Tue 16 Dec 2014, 12:18

Incorruptus wrote:I like this, BTW. The clusters are awesome. I loved making Maskųti's clusters.
Thanks! [:)] Clusters can be such fun... Is there a thread on Maskųti? A quick search suggests there isn't.
kanejam wrote:No [m]? No approximants? Coda /h:/?? You're a madman!! Very cool
Haha, thanks! [xD] Actually the lack of approximants is what I consider the greatest "leap" for me.
shimobaatar wrote:Nice! So I take it there's no possibility of an affricate with a geminate release?
No, I leave those to you.
Any change in the way tones work?
Oops! I forgot all about the tones. But basically, there has been no change so far.
looking at the b) rule, are glides always allophonically inserted before word-initial high vowels?
No, there is another reason. I hope to address glide-insertion in my next post.
cheííee
kéh
íchbíí
eıffbsít
I really like the aesthetic of Hííenununóóoþa. It has a very distinctive look to it, and that look can't be easily compared to that of a natlang or group of natlangs, at least in my opinion.
Thank you very much! That made me happy!! [:D] :mrgreen: [<3]
shimobaatar wrote:
kanejam wrote:Why no love for the low vowels? I feel like some kind of vowel allophony would fill that gap in.
I also hope that low vowels pop up once allophony is discussed in greater detail
Low vowels are definitely not going to be major players in this phonology, though there is a chance they might rear their little allophonic heads in my upcoming post on glide-insertion and vowel-breaking, aka. vowel allophony. Stay tuned. [:)]
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Wed 17 Dec 2014, 17:04

Here is an idea for vowel allophony in Hííenununóóoþa.

Vowel Breaking

When a short vowel immediately precedes a consonant cluster starting in a stop, affricate or geminate fricative, the quality of the vowel is affected as follows:
• The vowel is lowered and becomes more lax.
• If the vowel is word-initial or preceded by another vowel, this results in a glide being inserted before the vowel.

i y u → ɪ ʏ ʊ / C_K
i y u → jɪ ɥʏ wʊ / #_K, V_K
i y u → jɘ ɥɘ wɘ / VV_K

ɛ œ ɔ → æ œ̞ ɒ / C_K
ɛ œ ɔ → jæ ɥœ̞ wɒ / #_K, V_K
ɛ œ ɔ → jɐ ɥɐ wɐ / VV_K

K represents any consonant cluster starting in a stop, affricate or geminate fricative

Note that these principles do not apply to short diphthongs. Those are pretty indestructible.

I guess I should give some examples. We already saw íchbíí [jɪt͡ʃʰbiː] in the post on Allophony above. Here are two more examples:

nóóutskéh [nɔːwɘt͡sʰkʰɛ̥h]
ųbkííske [ɥʏb̥ʰkiːskɛ]

Ponderables:
- I'm in two minds whether to represent vowel breaking in the orthography; on one hand I like fairly phonetic orthographies, but on the other hand, I'm not sure I want w y popping up
- I'm not sure I "believe in" some of the distinctions being made between the low vowels, but perhaps that's not all that important; suffice it to say that the open-mid vowels are lowered
- On a related note, I'm pretty sure [jɘ ɥɘ wɘ] and [jɐ ɥɐ wɐ] would almost merge in rapid speech; again, I don't really mind
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by shimobaatar » Wed 17 Dec 2014, 17:34

DesEsseintes wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:Nice! So I take it there's no possibility of an affricate with a geminate release?
No, I leave those to you.
Hahaha! [:)] I always forget that it's more common for the stop portion to be geminated.
DesEsseintes wrote:Thank you very much! That made me happy!! [:D] :mrgreen: [<3]
No problem! [:D] All of your conlangs that I've seen do have a pleasant, distinct, and consistent aesthetic, but I thought it was worth pointing out that I can't even begin to compare the general look of Hííenununóóoþa to any natlangs.
DesEsseintes wrote:i y u → ɪ ʏ ʊ / C_K
i y u → jɪ ɥʏ wʊ / #_K, V_K
i y u → jɘ ɥɘ wɘ / VV_K

ɛ œ ɔ → æ œ̞ ɒ / C_K
ɛ œ ɔ → jæ ɥœ̞ wɒ / #_K, V_K
ɛ œ ɔ → jɐ ɥɐ wɐ / VV_K
I like how there are different ways a vowel can "break" depending on what proceeds it (especially the #_K, V_K vs. VV_K distinction).
DesEsseintes wrote:nóóutskéh [nɔːwɘt͡sʰkʰɛ̥h]
ųbkííske [ɥʏb̥ʰkiːskɛ]
Are these just example words, or do they have more definite meanings?
DesEsseintes wrote:When a short vowel immediately precedes a consonant cluster starting in a stop, affricate or geminate fricative, the quality of the vowel is affected as follows:
DesEsseintes wrote:Note that these principles do not apply to short diphthongs. Those are pretty indestructible.
So I'm guessing that there won't be changes that do apply to short diphthongs detailed later on? What about long vowels/diphthongs? Not necessarily vowel breaking, but any allophonic changes?
DesEsseintes wrote:- I'm in two minds whether to represent vowel breaking in the orthography; on one hand I like fairly phonetic orthographies, but on the other hand, I'm not sure I want w y popping up
I definitely understand your dilemma. This might not be a very helpful answer, but I'd either put up with not having the orthography represent vowel breaking, or I'd come up with a way to represent the glides without using <w y>.

Actually, vowel breaking seems to happen in a fairly regular way in a set type of environment, and not writing it exactly as it's pronounced wouldn't be that much of a loss in terms of having a fairly phonetic orthography, at least not in my opinion.
DesEsseintes wrote:- I'm not sure I "believe in" some of the distinctions being made between the low vowels, but perhaps that's not all that important; suffice it to say that the open-mid vowels are lowered
I can't say I know exactly what you mean by this, but the low vowels look fine to me.
DesEsseintes wrote:- On a related note, I'm pretty sure [jɘ ɥɘ wɘ] and [jɐ ɥɐ wɐ] would almost merge in rapid speech; again, I don't really mind
Like you said, it wouldn't be that big of a deal for them to merge, but I'm wondering if they would. Since the language doesn't have phonemic low vowels, wouldn't [jɐ ɥɐ wɐ] be more likely to be kept distinct? Or would the fact that the language lacks phonemic low vowels make it less likely for [jɐ ɥɐ wɐ] to remain distinct?
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Thu 18 Dec 2014, 10:55

shimobaatar wrote:
DesEsseintes wrote:nóóutskéh [nɔːwɘt͡sʰkʰɛ̥h]
ųbkííske [ɥʏb̥ʰkiːskɛ]
Are these just example words, or do they have more definite meanings?
Just samples, I'm afraid. So far, I've got about five words in the Hííenununóóoþa lexicon. [:|]
So I'm guessing that there won't be changes that do apply to short diphthongs detailed later on? What about long vowels/diphthongs? Not necessarily vowel breaking, but any allophonic changes?
I don't think there will be very much vowel allophony apart from vowel breaking, although I do want to add more adequate descriptions of the realisations of some vowel sounds, especially the front roundeds.

As for the orthographic representation of vowel breaking, I agree that since it's a regular process, there's no need to mess with the orthography.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Thu 18 Dec 2014, 11:00

Just a quick post on the development of some aspects of Hííenununóóoþa phonology. Nothing particularly original, I'm afraid.

I would like k p → Ø k to have occurred at an earlier stage in this language, so of course that means I need to explain the presence of /b/ in Hííenununóóoþa. I also need to find an explanation for the presence of front rounded vowels and I think I've hit upon a pretty neat solution.

Pre-Hííenununóóoþa had the glides /j w/ which it inherited from Proto-Híí. (Proto-Híí actually had a total of four glides /ð̞ j w ɰ/.)

Velars were greatly affected by following glides, becoming labial before /w/ and palatal before /j/

kw → p → b
kj → t͡ʃ


It was only later that front rounded vowels developed from /wV/ sequences as follows

wɛ wɛː weɪ̯ wi wiː → œ œː øʏ̯ y yː

As a result, there are no instances of front rounded vowels following velar, palatal or labial consonants in root morphemes in Hííenununóóoþa. In other words, front rounded vowels only occur after /n t t͡s t͡ɬ θ s ɬ h/.

The only exceptions would be due to vowel harmony, but my ideas on vowel harmony are still pretty vague, so exactly what this entails remains to be seen.

I really like restricting the distribution of front rounded vowels in this way.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by Creyeditor » Thu 18 Dec 2014, 20:27

DesEsseintes wrote:
Pre-Hííenununóóoþa had the glides /j w/ which it inherited from Proto-Híí. (Proto-Híí actually had a total of four glides ð̞/ j w ɰ/.)
[...]
I really like restricting the distribution of front rounded vowels in this way.
I like it [ð̞] [:)]
And I like a restricted distribution of front rounded vowels [;)]
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by shimobaatar » Thu 18 Dec 2014, 23:59

DesEsseintes wrote:Just samples, I'm afraid. So far, I've got about five words in the Hííenununóóoþa lexicon. [:|]
There's no shame in that; lexicon building is quite difficult (at least in my opinion).
DesEsseintes wrote:and I think I've hit upon a pretty neat solution.
[+1]
DesEsseintes wrote:As a result, there are no instances of front rounded vowels following velar, palatal or labial consonants in root morphemes in Hííenununóóoþa. In other words, front rounded vowels only occur after /n t t͡s t͡ɬ θ s ɬ h/.
Cool.

Was /w/ allowed intervocalically? If so, what happened there?

Also, what about initial /wV/ sequences? Did they undergo the same changes as /CwV/ sequences? Was /#wV/ allowed at all?
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Fri 19 Dec 2014, 00:20

Was /w/ allowed intervocalically? If so, what happened there?

Also, what about initial /wV/ sequences? Did they undergo the same changes as /CwV/ sequences? Was /#wV/ allowed at all?
The change was unconditional as far as I can tell. As the latest incarnation of Hííenununóóoþa allows vowel sequences without intervening consonants, sth like héwee would simply have evolved into héǫǫ. This applies word-initially and intervocalically.

/w/ was simply deleted before back vowels, at least until I get a better idea.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by shimobaatar » Fri 19 Dec 2014, 02:32

DesEsseintes wrote:
Was /w/ allowed intervocalically? If so, what happened there?

Also, what about initial /wV/ sequences? Did they undergo the same changes as /CwV/ sequences? Was /#wV/ allowed at all?
The change was unconditional as far as I can tell. As the latest incarnation of Hííenununóóoþa allows vowel sequences without intervening consonants, sth like héwee would simply have evolved into héǫǫ. This applies word-initially and intervocalically.

/w/ was simply deleted before back vowels, at least until I get a better idea.
Very cool!

Regarding /w/ before back vowels, you could have it lengthen short ones and lower high tone ones before disappearing. As in:

wo > oo
wó > o

And so on. Just a thought.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Fri 19 Dec 2014, 08:00

shimobaatar wrote:I definitely understand your dilemma. This might not be a very helpful answer, but I'd either put up with not having the orthography represent vowel breaking, or I'd come up with a way to represent the glides without using <w y>.
Having thought about it, I'd like to come back to this. How else could the glides be represented?
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by shimobaatar » Fri 19 Dec 2014, 08:07

DesEsseintes wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:I definitely understand your dilemma. This might not be a very helpful answer, but I'd either put up with not having the orthography represent vowel breaking, or I'd come up with a way to represent the glides without using <w y>.
Having thought about it, I'd like to come back to this. How else could the glides be represented?
I'm about to go to sleep, so this list won't be exhaustive, but off the top of my head:
  • <v j> /w j/ if you don't like the aesthetic of <w y>
  • Esse(i)ntially any variation on the letters <u i> that you're not already using.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by Birdlang » Fri 26 Dec 2014, 12:24

You can use u and i with breve for /w/ and /j/. I have used that for conlangs.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Sat 27 Dec 2014, 17:03

Thanks for the suggestions, shimo and birdlang. I remain undecided.
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Re: Hííenununóóoþa - an Esseintial Speedlang

Post by DesEsseintes » Sat 27 Dec 2014, 17:05

More Morphophonology

Here are some further morphophonological processes that occur in Hííenununóóoþa.

High Vowel Loss

Unaccented high vowels (i.e. vowels that carry neither high nor low tone) are elided following consonant clusters in /s x/ before coda /s h/ in non-final syllables as follows:

{sıh sųh suh} → ss / C_C
{sıs sųs sus} → ss / C_C
{xıs xųs xus} → ss / C_C

{xıh xųh xuh} → xx / C_C

The resulting ss xx is syllabic. Note that if a sibilant is present, it always prevails over the non-sibilant fricative.

Note that /h/ has many allomorphs before stops

óóks + ıfbonéé → óókssbonéé

ıfbonéé is underlyingly ıhbonéé

Note also that High Vowel Loss never applies in stressed syllables. As an example, ıbsístsı does not change to ıbsstsı.

Sibilant → Shibilant

This rule was lightly touched upon before, and it is absolute. The High Vowel Loss rule often feeds it.

s ss → sh ssh / _{tł ch}

As an example, consider the following:

shíks + uxchonóó → *shíksschonóó → shíksshchonóó

Vowel Shortening

Unaccented long vowels (i.e. long vowels that carry neither high, low nor falling tone) become short before another long vowel or before a geminate coda /sː ɬː hː/.

V[+long][-tone] → V[-long] / _F[+long], _V[+long]

Examples:

bee + hhtséı → behhtséı
oo + óótso → oóótso
chee + íí + ee → cheííee
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