- Which lacks reflexive personal pronouns, but can use suffixaufnahme or verbal suffixes for the same effect:Peter washed himself:
Pieter-Ø g-Ushpi-n-udPeter-ABS.SG.M PST-wash-SIMPLE-REFLEXIVE
Pieteril vilef gUshpin
Pieter-il v-il-ef g-Ushpi-nPeter-ERG.SG.M 1-ERG-ACC.SG.M PST-wash-SIMPLE
*Peter he-him washed. Although grammatical, I think this would sound odd to a hypothetical native-speaker.Peter washed the car himself:
- Two possible interpretations, the second of which has two likely forms:
1 - Pieteril grraimpef bouvuif gUshpin
Pieter-il grraimp-ef bouv-uif g-Ushpi-nPeter-ERG.SG.M car-ACC.SG.M self-ADV.M PST-wash-SIMPLE
Peter washed car 'selfly' (personally).
2A - Pieteril grraimpef zoeduif gUshpin
Pieter-il grraimp-ef z-oed-uif g-Ushpi-nPeter-ERG.SG.M car-ACC.SG.M ANIMATE-one-ADV.M PST-wash-SIMPLE
Peter washed car alone.
2B - Pieteril v[il]eung grraimpef gUshpin
Pieter-il v-[il]-eung grraimp-ef g-Ushpi-nPeter-ERG.SG.M 1-[ERG]-COMITATIVE.SG.M car-ACC.SG.M PST-wash-SIMPLE
Peter washed car with himself (alone).
In example 2B, 'vileung' exhibits suffixaufnahme, with both an ergative inflection to match with Peter, and a comitative inflection. The ergative inflection could be dropped, but would result in some ambiguity (as the clause could then mean that Peter washed the car with some other, thus far undefined, man).